Celebrate the Facts!
5/30/2022 2 Comments
The incidence of serial killings has declined, but mass shootings have risen. While many people theorize significant differences between the two groups, the similarities are striking. There are valuable lessons from how law enforcement reacted to serial killers that are easily translatable to managing mass shooters. Unfortunately, the United States seems so stuck in tribal gridlock that solutions seem impossible.
The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines serial killing as the unlawful killing of two or more victims by the same offender(s) in separate events. Serial killers and mass murderers both kill multiple people, but serial killers allow time to elapse before killing again. Mass murderers, by contrast, commit all their murders in a brief, one-time event. School shooters are mass murderers, not serial killers.
The psychological finding is the serial killer has an overpowering need to exercise power over others. Serial killing numbers increased over several decades per an overall rise in crime rates. Similarly, the subsequent fall in serial killings followed the slope of the decrease in crime rates.
The criminal justice system rarely serial killers legally insane, although it’s hard to fathom how someone who commits these crimes contains any molecule of sanity. The most constant psychological trait among serial killers appears to be highly antisocial conduct. They seem incapable of sorrow for their acts, operate outside the law and societal norms, lack empathy for their victims and seek vengeance against individuals or society through their outrageous crimes.
Fascinating facts about serial killers:
Psychologists describe a sequence of stages in the cycle of serial killers:
Some experts theorize that advances in forensic investigation, especially DNA testing, have resulted in the decline in serial killers. Police have apprehended about thirty murderers and rapists (and counting) by combining genetic testing and public genealogy site DNA data. One of the most recent examples is police charging the Golden State Killer, Joseph DeAngelo, many decades after he slaughtered 12 women between 1976 and 1986.
The resultant higher prospect of arrest might help the decline, although one can question how much that might affect someone compelled to take another person’s life. In the United States, police clear only about 60% of all homicides, although serial killing has some characteristics that make those particular maniacs easier to arrest. For example, serial killers tend to use the same method of operation, operate near their homes, and choose similar victims so they are easier to identify. That, combined with DNA evidence, often solves these horrid crimes.
A more significant factor in reducing serial killers is more prolonged prison sentences and reductions in parole over time. If the criminal justice system arrested potential serial killers earlier and imprisoned them longer, they would have less time in public to kill again and would be much older upon release. The reduction is likely the result of the factors mentioned above, plus education and public awareness.
Mass shooters have similar characteristics to serial killers and some significant differences. Some criminologists surmise serial killers morphed into mass shooters, an awful lot who have grown as the numbers of serial killers have declined. Indeed, they share similar traits but have significant disparities.
A quick look at mass shooter characteristics:
Several organizations collect data on mass shootings, but there is no federal definition for this category. As a result, the United States government does not publish specific segregated data. Instead, the nongovernmental databases track frequency, deaths, injuries, and perpetrator information, but the databases define mass shooters differently, rendering comparisons problematic.
This creates a considerable problem in governance and public health. Policymakers, working with imperfect and sometimes contradictory data, have found it challenging to arrive at authoritative conclusions about how to mitigate the problem. For society to alleviate the problem, it needs to define it, collect data, and analyze it.
In addition, the ‘gun rights’ single-issue political and culture war has resulted in predictable cycles of outrage and scorn, seemingly staged for media consumption, followed by inaction. The confluence of cloudy data, limited understanding of the mental health issues, and media and political engagement in culture wars result in the current unfortunate situation.
A huge problem is the lack of detailed psychological analysis of mass murderers. The criminal justice system diverts them into the prison-industrial complex for execution or lifetime incarceration, a terrible waste of potential information necessary to inform prevention and diversion. Detailed examination of these people using various tools would provide researchers with the required evidence to understand the problem.
Finally, the federal government providing a firm definition of mass shootings followed by an exhaustive classification of past events would be invaluable to researchers and allow for a more informed discussion based on facts. In addition, results would help drive early intervention rather than reactive hand wringing after massacres.
5/22/2022 1 Comment
Hidden in those lovely suburban homes is a seething cauldron of sexual strangeness, the unspoken and sometimes the unspeakable. Human sexuality ranges from innocent consensual activities to the foulest of crimes; human sexuality is as complex as the human species. And nothing is creepier and more fascinating than bizarre sexual behavior psychiatrists call paraphilia and its subset of oddness, sexual fetishes.
What constitutes normal sexual behavior? There is no forthright riposte. What is normal in one culture at one time can be outrageous or illegal in another. Various governments have made some everyday sexual activities criminal until very recently. Some coercive sexual behaviors, like pedophilia, are so unspeakably deviant all reasonable societies ban them and imprison perpetrators.
Paraphilias are persistent and recurrent sexual interests, urges, fantasies, or behaviors of marked intensity involving objects, activities, or atypical situations. Although not innately pathological, a paraphilic disorder can evolve if paraphilia invokes harm, distress, or functional impairment in the lives of the affected individual or others.
The (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) delineates eight paraphilias:
The percentage of the population that experience paraphilic behaviors is tough to discern because much of the scientific literature consists of case studies rather than broad surveys. Paraphilias, including fetishism, are correlated with general psychosocial impairment, including physical abuse, lower educational attainment, inpatient admissions for mental health and substance abuse treatment, disability, unemployment, criminal justice system involvement, and increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases infections, and comorbid mental health problems.
The onset of paraphilic behaviors occurs during early adolescence through various physical, psychological, and social factors. The behaviors usually reach full bloom by the age of 20 years. Paraphilias are male-dominated as at least 90% of all those people affected are men. Why this is the case is unknown, but one might suspect as society accepts women and their sexual agency, fetishism among women might rise. Research also indicates that some paraphilias appear to be more common than others. Coercion is often central to paraphilias. Some paraphiliacs enjoy their forbidden pleasures alone, and others include consensual adults who participate in, watch, or abide by the activity.
Then there are those to whom an object or body part has the power to captivate all attention. Fetishistic disorder is a clinical diagnosis assigned to people who experience sexual arousal from objects or a specific part of the body that people typically do not regard as erotic. Almost any body part or object can be a fetish. The DSM-5 notes that fetishistic disorder typically emerges at the onset of puberty and rarely before adolescence. In addition, the severity of the disorder can wax and wane over the lifespan.
Sexual fetishism includes hundreds of micro-fetish categories. Fetishes refer to obtaining sexual excitement primarily or exclusively from an object or a part of the body not typically regarded as sexual. There’s also situational fetishism, where certain things must occur for the fetishist to become excited such as roles or situations like a fetishist fixating on a partner smoking during sex.
Some of the stranger sexual fetishes:
There’s a bit of a gray zone in society’s definitions of fetishes. For example, society regards a sexual attraction to feet as a fetish, while attraction to breasts is a ‘normal’ component of sex. Types of fetishes are often a function of sexual orientation. Heterosexual men tend toward high-heeled shoes, lingerie, and hosiery. Among gay men, fetishistic objects tend to be highly masculine.
Fetishists, almost always male, have difficulty orgasming without the fetish item. Fetishes are not disorders unless the fetishistic behaviors cause adverse outcomes or psychological problems for fetishists. Scientific research confirms the most common body fetishes are for feet, hands, and hair and that the most prevalent fetish objects are shoes, gloves, and used underwear. Fetishes rarely develop into an offense that harms anyone, although crimes may include theft (of underwear) or cutting hair from an unwilling victim.
Suppose the etiology of a fetish is a learned behavior. In that case, cognitive behavioral therapy using gradual exposure to the fetishistic object combined with a neutral response, rather than a sexual response, may help lower or eliminate sexual arousal associated with an object.
While the world of sexual oddness can be fascinating from the observation standpoint, people with unusual sexualities such as paraphilias and fetishes likely lead very lonely and unfulfilling lives. Isolation and fears of societal backlash seem needless in consensual and legal sexual activities. Regardless, more research into the prevalence and causes will help those afflicted with such needs and their partners.
5/15/2022 1 Comment
Infotainment, also known as Hate, Inc., makes money off hate, and it doesn’t matter what brand it is. That these major networks are all conglomerates and their ‘journalism’ is political propaganda wrapped about a few facts intended to attract members of their respective political tribes seems lost on the viewers. Still, a recent concept called the Great Replacement Theory, promoted on national right-wing broadcasts, and spewed by hatemasters in the Hateosphere, seems to be the proximate motivation for the newest wave of mass murderers. How many more people will die at the hands of radicalized shooters before people quit making money from sponsoring this concept?
The ‘Great Replacement’ theory is a racist polemic making the case that unseen forces are deliberately ‘replacing’ white European populations by encouraging immigration and the growth of minority communities. This theory rests on demographic projections showing Caucasian people are becoming a minority group. The Great Replacement is a relatively new term rebranding old-fashioned racism and nativism. A French writer named Renaud Camus first used the term ‘Great Replacement’ in his 2011 book entitled Le Grand Remplacement (The Great Replacement).
The theory focuses on the premise that growing populations of immigrants (read brown people) marginalize white people. This thinking is as old as immigration, and the Great Replacement theory is just a rebranding with a fancy and less loathsome name. Recently the term has become common in extreme-right groups, a philosophical duct tape binding together an extremist minority of the population.
No one will mistake Tucker Carlson as much more than a gasbag making money off hate. The idea Marjorie Taylor Greene, Matt Gaetz, or Scott Perry are much more than political entrepreneurs begs credulity. Still, the repackaged ethnocentric philosophy makes inroads into the United States population. About 1 in 3 U.S. adults accept as accurate that there is an effort to exchange United States-born Americans with immigrants for election advantages. Republicans appear to be slightly more likely than Democrats to fear a loss of influence because of immigration at 36% to 27%.
Unfortunately, the Great Replacement theory has become a centerpiece of America's newest form of toxicity, the racist mass murderer. A generation or two ago, the great mass murderers tended to be serial killers, such as Ted Bundy, Jeffrey Dahmer, Wayne Williams, John Wayne Gacy, and the like. The new breed is mass shooters who surprise attack in churches, theaters, grocery stores, and other public places. Although these deranged folks have numerous ideological beliefs, many have cited the Great Replacement as their motivation.
Terrorist Robert Bowers committed a domestic terrorist mass shooting at the Tree of Life synagogue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in October 2018, killing 11 people and injuring seven. The shooting is the deadliest attack on the United States Jewish community. Bowers believed the Jews were helping the ‘invaders.’
Brenton Tarrant killed 51 and wounded another 40 churchgoers at two mosques in a terrorist attack on Christchurch Mosques in New Zealand in March 2019. Tarrant live-streamed the shooting over Facebook. In addition, Tarrant published a manifesto where he referenced ‘the Great Replacement’ as his motivation for the attack.
Terrorist Paul Crusius walked into a Walmart in El Paso, Texas, in August 2019, shooting, killing 22 people, and injuring 24 more. His motive was stopping a ‘Hispanic invasion’ of Texas.
The most recent mass murderer in the Great Replacement portfolio is 18-year-old Payton Gendron, the alleged perpetrator of a mass shooting in Buffalo, New York. Gendron allegedly killed ten people and injured three more. Eleven of the 13 people shot were African American. The alleged perpetrator, 18-year-old Payton Gendron, produced a 180-page work referencing the Great Replacement and lifted much of the text from Brenton Tarrant’s manifesto.
Politicians and Infotainment entrepreneurs are helping the Great Replacement narrative through references to the conspiracy theory in their speeches, social media posts, and policies.
Perhaps the most prominent right-wing media performer, Tucker Carlson, has led the invective. ‘I know that the left and all the little gatekeepers on Twitter become literally hysterical if you use the term ‘replacement,’ if you suggest for the Democratic Party is trying to replace the current electorate, the voters now casting ballots, with new people, more obedient voters from the Third World,’ said Tucker Carlson in April 2021. ‘But they become hysterical because that’s what’s happening, actually.’ Then, in September 2021, Carlson reinforced his loathsome beliefs. ‘In political terms, this policy is called the great replacement, the replacement of legacy Americans with more obedient people from faraway countries.’
Congressperson Matt Gaetz of Florida, always quick to collect some attention from controversy, tweeted that Carlson was ‘CORRECT about Replacement Theory as he explains what is happening to America.’
‘For many Americans,’ Rep. Scott Perry (R-Pa.) said in a Congressional hearing in April 2021, ‘what seems to be happening or what they believe right now is happening is, what appears to them is we’re replacing national-born American — native-born Americans to permanently transform the political landscape of this very nation.’
Marjorie Taylor Greene, a Georgia Congressperson who bears a remarkable resemblance to Miss Piggy of Muppets fame, shared a video in 2018 repeating the anti-Semitic claim that ‘Zionist supremacists’ are conspiring to flood Europe with migrants to replace the white populations there.
J.D. Vance, a right-wing ideologue running for the United States senate in Ohio, recently piled onto the hatewagon. ‘Biden’s open border is killing Ohioans,’ says his campaign ad ‘with more illegal drugs and more Democrat voters pouring into this country.’
Newt Gingrich, a serial adulterer who once served divorce papers to his wife recovering in a hospital following a mastectomy, and right-wing former Speaker of the House, promoted replacement theory on Fox News in August 2021. Gingrich dog whistled the ‘radical left’ wants to ‘get rid of the rest of us’ and would ‘love to drown traditional, classic Americans with as many people as they can who know nothing of American history, nothing of American tradition, nothing of the rule of law.’
Classic conspiracy theory formulas such as the Great Replacement consist of an unseen manipulative group intent on some end goal for nefarious ends. The problem is that conspiracy theories often make fundamental sense when closely examined.
The Great Replacement is no outlier in this formula. It is full of flaws in fact and logic that make it untenable:
People who forward dangerous ideologies have some ethical considerations. For instance, people who promulgated and substantiated the Great Replacement theory have some link to the consumers. And this ideology provided some of the impetus and philosophical bulwark for the people who committed these atrocities. The platforms that provided this information also bear some guilt, although making a criminal case against them, once again, seems impossible.
To suggest a moral reckoning seems as likely as the Ghost of Christmas Future visiting. The pundits make money inspiring hatred, politicians gain office and make even more money, and social media platforms, their employees, and all their stockholders make cash. The only people who suffer, unfortunately, are the populace.
While the United States is well into a Christian Nationalist revolution, the Republic of Ireland (Ireland) has transcended from a theocracy into a secular liberal democracy. Through this process, the economy of Ireland has bloomed. The story of Ireland offers significant lessons for the future of America.
Ireland moved from a theocracy to a secular state through many jumps. The excesses of the Catholic Church in Ireland and the remainder of the world are legend, including labor exploitation, cruelty to children and unwed mothers, the dominance of all systems of government, and child rape, among other horrid crimes.
Most experts attribute the move toward a secular government and the removal of church-dictated laws to the backlash against these crimes. Undoubtedly there are other reasons for the dramatic transformation of this society from one of the more repressive religion-dominated governments to a progressive and inclusive community. But, regardless of the cause, Ireland has bloomed into an inclusive society that refutes outmoded Christian bigotry’s role in governance.
Under the same Government of Ireland Act of 1920 that created the Irish Free State, the British created the Parliament of Northern Ireland. The Parliament consisted of Protestants who helped install a system of systematic discrimination against Catholics. The irrationality of two sects of Christianity at literal war seems surreal, but such appears to be a consistent tie among most religions.
Ireland became a theocracy because of the dominance of the Catholic Church hierarchies in its territory. As a result, the Catholics codified their beliefs into the civil law structure. Ireland is a parliamentary democracy. Ireland’s leaders promulgated its constitution in 1937 and allowed for amendments through referendums. The prime minister, who heads the cabinet, has executive authority.
It may seem bizarre, but until recently:
Recent changes to Ireland’s constitution have moved the Republic of Ireland from a theocracy to liberal secular democracy:
An excellent example of the opening of Irish society was the election of Leo Varadkar, an Irish-born man of Indian ancestry, to the position of During the campaign for the 2015 same-sex marriage referendum, Varadkar came out as gay, becoming the first serving Irish minister to do so.
Varadkar became Taoiseach, the Gaelic word for prime minister when he was 38 years old. He was the youngest person to hold the office. Varadkar was Ireland's first and the world's fourth, openly gay head of government and the first Taoiseach with Indian heritage.
Aside from the quality of life for all citizens, the move toward secular government is strongly correlated with economic growth. The primary economic growth measurements are gross domestic product (GDP) data. GDP measures the monetary value of final goods and services produced in a country. Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) measures a country's economic output per person. The gold standard for GDP data is the World Bank.
Ireland outstrips its geographically nearest political group, the United Kingdom, in GDP growth rates and per capita GDP. The United Kingdom is a country run by England, which controls Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. While the comparison is imperfect, the contrast, plus the incredible growth in the economy of Ireland, is impossible to deny. Ireland has transformed from a country of poor people run by an archaic set of moral codes to a liberal democracy that is now a destination rather than a place to flee.
The correlation of economic growth with progressive governance is impossible to deny. A recent study of seven states in the south-central part of the United States, including Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and West Virginia, confirmed they lagged the United States as a whole. From 1997 to 2019, these states cumulative had a GDP growth of 1.3% annually, compared to the United States rate of 2.3%, so they are falling farther behind the rest of the United States every year. After the end of Apartheid in South Africa, GDP growth rose to nearly 3% from 1.25% from 1980 to 1994.
Oddly, Ireland is the reverse of many of the changes in the United States. The rise of Christian Nationalism with its brethren white nationalism and conspiracy theory has helped move the United States from an emerging liberal society toward a theocracy led by Christian Nationalists. Recent events with an openly racist president highlight the changes in American society. Donald Trump appointed three openly Christian Nationalists to the United States Supreme Court. They will provide the necessary votes to overturn the right to abortion and continue to advocate for Christian causes.
While the theology of Christianity is benign and the faith traditions of the various Christian sects have some benefits to individuals and societies, Christian Nationalism is an awful movement. Christian Nationalists falsely assert that the founders of America were devout Christians, that they used Christian principles in developing the constitution, and the country must remain a ‘Christian nation.’ That’s mostly surrogacy for systemic racism and discrimination against anyone who varies from Christian normative values.
While some wish to dismiss this upcoming abortion ruling as a singular reversal, the Christian Nationalist majority on the court has four justices who arguably perjured themselves in confirmation hearings.
Clarence Thomas likely perjured himself in his denials of the credible Anita Hill sexual harassment allegations. Brett Kavanaugh appeared to lie under oath about credible allegations of attempted rape and his history of alcoholism and dissembling about his thoughts about abortion. Amy Coney Barrett and Neil Gorsuch both dissembled about their predispositions about abortion.
Their troubles with the truth will almost certainly extend to convolutions necessary to reverse progressive causes and rights in future court findings. While apologists look to isolate this as one particular moral issue, the Christian Nationalist majority on the court will truncate or dismantle much progressive legislation and truncate human rights.
As the Supreme Court weakens the federal government's power, repressive states controlled by Christian Nationalists will enact laws and informal methods to implement their views. Those will include restricting access to abortion, weakening labor protection, repressing minority voting, imprisoning more minorities, and further eroding human rights.
And like other repressive governments, the wealth in those states and the standard of living will continue to decline. One can envision a time not too distant when the young, talented, and diverse will leave these places, if possible, and seek a better future in a welcoming and diverse environment.
In culture wars, each side tends toward ad hominem arguments. These are easy ways to degenerate into emotional exchanges that nourish neither side and change no one’s mind or political orientation. Nevertheless, the empirical data conclude the inverse relationship between autocratic and repressive governance and economic growth. And economic growth is not only desirable but correlated with virtually every public health measurement.
Donald Trump almost overthrew a legitimate government in 2020. Despite public statements, recordings, and other media, Trump and his many public enablers escaped with no consequences. Watch out, because next time Trump may indeed say ‘No More Mr. Nice Guy.’ With Elon Musk’s recent purchase of Twitter, the odds of Trump’s return twitched up a touch.
The United States is in the middle of a revolution. The Democratic Party and its constituents seem to lack the political will to resist a seeming upwelling of Christian Nationalism, hatred, and bigotry. PG-rated ads, tribal television Infotainment, and serial television stand up comedy acts won’t get it done.
No intelligent or rational person has any doubt Donald Trump attempted a coup regardless of public representation. Multiple entities regardless of political alliance confirmed the election was conclusive and Joe Biden was the president-elect of the United States. Regardless, Trump attempted to install himself as president, and, quite possibly, intended to stay in office until deposed or dead.
The Democratic Party, with ancient leaders using even older strategies, has allowed a recent coup attempt to remain smoldering, and while a bit of a long shot, there’s a very real possibility the leaders of that insurrection and their enablers may return to power.
A key point in understanding white nationalist strategy is its stated strategies to insulate leaders from criminal charges. White nationalist Louis Beam prescribed the mechanism in his 1992 essay Leaderless Resistance. The piece recommended no longer planning in large groups but forming cells of one to six men, with little or no direct contact with nominal leadership. This methodology became standard among white nationalist groups, mitigating the ability of law enforcement to tie leaders to criminal acts.
Trump led the insurrection with his messaging. He provided a rationale, election fraud, and a means for the coup. He attempted to sway various arms of the federal and state governments to his side, and, on at least one occasion, was recorded in such effort. He called violent supporters to Washington DC to a rally he addressed and encouraged the mob to march on the Capitol building. The leaderless resistance concept insulated him, and his henchmen, including cultish paramilitary groups, such as the Proud Boys and the Oath Keepers along with the mob of white trash at the Capitol, implemented the message.
While some wish to dismiss Trump as a dullard, such appears an erroneous conclusion. Trump has incredible intelligence about anything that benefits him. He has an uncanny sense of how far to push the law and still stay free of consequences. One might reasonably conclude anything else fails to capture his attention.
Trump’s genius is the use of media of various provenance to reach various audiences. Trump cobbled together a group of minority groups that often overlapped demographics. Mainstream Republicans couldn’t stomach voting for a Democrat and held their nose and pulled the Trump lever. Much of the rest of his support came from special interest groups including gun nuts, fervent Christians, people who were against abortion, racists, and disaffected white men and the women who love them.
While many of these special interest groups were very small minorities of the electorate, a few points were enough to make a difference in razor-thin elections and those groups pushed Trump into the presidency.
One of Trump’s challenges was overcoming his messaging of hate and reaching audiences who were undecided or could be swayed into his camp. Many of the media audiences were echo chambers with only like-minded consumers with Fox News perhaps being the best example.
Social media was one area that offered a bit of penetration into other audiences and was critical to Trump’s success with Facebook and Twitter providing the most effective platforms. Trump’s campaign organizations pumped many millions into advertising each. Both organizations removed Trump after the January 6, 2020 coup failure, and such was a perhaps fatal blow to his hopes for a political future.
Regardless, in the movies all monsters come back for sequels and Trump is no exception. There’s money in those political hills and Trump may come back to mine them again, and if he does, Elon Musk will be his resurrector.
Musk’s apparently successful buyout of Twitter is the end game of billionaire hubris. Musk is not an innovator. He didn’t invent the Internet or wire transfer of money, he merely put them together at PayPal. Musk didn’t come up with the idea for an electric car, lithium ion batteries, and upscale branding, he arranged for them to coincide with Tesla. Similarly Musk didn’t create spaceflight or underground tunneling. Musk puts money and other people’s ideas together in new packages.
Musk won’t innovate at Twitter either. What he will do is make money, and he will make a lot of money on Twitter. Musk has already dog whistled Trump’s return with his comments about free speech.
Twitter makes money on selling user engagement. No current political figure is more loved or more hated than Trump so Musk is certain to allow his return and Trump will reward him with elevated engagement. And engagement means higher advertising rates and more advertising and that means a whole lot more money.
And there’s apparently nothing Musk yearns for more than more money.
Twitter offers a lot more to Trump than merely reaching potential swing voters. Trump used Twitter to test drive ideas, often tweeting or retweeting dozens of times a day. Trump then used those analytics to gauge real-time audience response to themes.
Trump could then tailor his messages and stay current with his audiences rather than relying on surveys or anecdotal data. And analytics are almost instantaneous data so Trump could stay ahead of the competition with themes and responses that resonated best.
There’s a lot of ground to cover until the next presidential election cycle. The Russian war in Ukraine put a dent in Trump’s brand but it’s unlikely that will diminish his support among his true believers, regardless of Vladimir Putin’s brutality. Trump’s health as always is uncertain, particularly his mental health.
Regardless, Trump delivered on his commitments to his core constituencies. He gave them a Christian Nationalist Supreme Court that will certainly overturn Roe v Wade with a ruling in June 2022, thereby rewarding the Christians and anti-abortion crowd. He honored the white nationalists with praise and legitimacy. He gave mainstream Republicans their treasured corporate tax cuts.
While free speech advocates say all, or almost all, speech deserves to be aired and ideas will succeed or fail best debated in open forums, hatred and its sisters deceit and racism, are a birds of different feathers. And poking fun at them won’t put them to rest.
Michael Donnelly investigates societal concerns with an untribal approach - to limit the discussion to the facts derived from primary sources so the reader can make more informed decisions.